The electrons of two atoms Y and Z are arranged in shells as shown above. The bond formed between the atoms of Y and Z is…
From the diagram, it is obvious that Y has 4 electrons in the outermost shell (it is a semiconductor or metalloid), while Z has 7 electrons in the outermost shell (it is a non-metal)
To satisfy the octet rule, element Y will need 4 more electrons to make it up to 8 outer electrons, while element Z will need just 1.
To form a bond, there will have to be a bonding arrangement where one Y will combine with four Z. Y will contribute 1 electron to each of the Zs which will also contribute one electron for share.
The resulting bond will be a covalent bond where one Y will contribute and share electrons with four Z.
Now for the right answer to the above question:
- Option A is incorrect. ionic bond involves a total transfer of electron from a metal to a non-metal. This is not the case here.
- Option B is correct. There is a mutual contribution and share of electrons between one Y and 4 Z to satisfy octet rule.
- C is incorrect. No, in dative bonding, only one of the bonding parties contributes the shared electron(s), this is not the case here, as all the bonding elements contributed to the sharing table.
- D is not the correct answer. Metallic bonding occurs among metals only, none of the elements is even a metal.
You may please note these/this:
- The real identity of Y is silicon, with a total of 14 electrons.
- The real identity of Z is chlorine, with a total of 17 electrons.
- These two elements can only form covalent bonds.
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/ culled from 2017 JAMB-UTME Chemistry question 27 /