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What technique is suitable for separating…

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CHEMISTRY

What technique is suitable for separating a binary solution of potassium chloride and potassium trioxochlorate (V)?

  • A. Fractional crystallization
  • B. Fractional distillation
  • C. Filtration
  • D. Evaporation

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A

SOLUTION 

Potassium chloride is a soluble white crystalline powder that look much like your table salt.

Potassium trioxochlorate (V) is also a soluble white crystalline powder that looks like table salt.

A binary solution of both would be attained when both salts are dissolved in water.

To separate this solution, we could employ fractional crystallization to crystallize out Potassium trioxochlorate (V) first.

Fractional crystallization uses differences in solubility to separate solutes.

Potassium chloride has a higher solubility of 280 g/l at 273K, and

Potassium trioxochlorate (V) has a lower solubility of 31 g/l at 273K.

Now for the right answer to the above question:

  1. Option A is correct. Fractional crystallization takes advantage of differences in solubility to separate solutes.
  2. Option B is incorrect. fractional distillation not used to separate dissolved crystals, it is instead used to separate different liquids, taking advantage of their differences in boiling points.
  3. C is incorrect. Filtration involves the use of a non-porous medium to separate undissolved solute from the solvent.
  4. D is not the correct answer. Evaporation is used to separate a dissolved solute from the solvent by taking advantage of its solubility at different temperatures. Evaporation is used when only one type of salt is dissolved in the solvent.
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QUICK TIPS…

You may please note these/this:

  • While evaporation is used when only one type of solute is dissolved in a solvent, fractional crystallization is used when more than one solute is dissolved in the same solvent, this is the difference between the two.

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/culled from 2019 JAMB-UTME Chemistry question 30/

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