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Which of the following is/are the limitations of the…

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PHYSICS

Which of the following is/are the limitations of the Rutherford’s atomic model?

  • I. It is applicable when energy is radiated as electrons are revolving
  • II. It is applicable when energy is radiated in a continuous mode
  • III. It is applicable to an atom with only one electron in the outer shell
  • A. I only
  • B. II only
  • C. I and II only
  • D. I, II, and III only

QUICK ANSWER…

C

DETAILS…

According to Rutherford’s atomic model,

  • The mass of an atom is concentrated on the center which is positively charged.
  • Electrons which are negatively charged, are said to be revolving round the nucleus just as planets go around the sun.
  • Between the nucleus and the outer shell is an empty space.

But there are drawbacks to this model, they are:

  • Since electrons are moving round the nucleus, they must be accelerating due to their changing direction. And since they are accelerating, they must be radiating energy. And if they are radiating energy, they are expected to slowly draw closer to the nucleus and eventually collapse into the center. But this is not the case for real atoms.
  • We know that real atoms are stable, and so, Rutherford’s model failed to account for this stability.

Given this understanding, I and II are correct.

Now for the right answer to the above question:

  1. Option A is incorrect. II is also correct.
  2. Option B is incorrect. I is also correct.
  3. C is correct.
  4. D is not the correct answer. III is the limitation of Neils Borh’s model of the hydrogen atom and not that of Rutherford’s planetary model.

KEY-POINTS…

You may please note these/this:

  • III is the limitation of Neils Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom and not that of Rutherford’s planetary model which actually put into account more than one revolving electron.
  • Rutherford’s planetary model of the atom has a major drawback, it is its inability to explain the stability of atoms.
  • If Rutherford’s planetary model of the atom were true, electrons revolving round the nucleus will eventually spiral into the center.

Use the questions and answer section to correct, express, and contribute your views.

/culled from 2019 JAMB-UTME physics question 12/

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